Saum (Fasting) is the third pillar of Islam. Fasting is compulsory for the Muslims in the month of Ramadan; one who denies its obligation goes out of the fold of Islam. In Islamic calendar, Ramadan is the ninth month. Around the word over billions of people fast and focus their attention on giving Zakat (religious charity) In this holy month. Muslims follow the lunar calendar and according to that calendar Ramadan in 2019 starts on 6th of May and will finish on or around 4th of June.

In Arabic “Saum” means to keep silence and to restrain. The Holy Quran defines “Saum” as “patience” too which means “self-control, perseverance and determination”. Therefore, according to Islam, Saum stands for protecting oneself against selfishness, sensual and bodily desires and protecting one’s instinctive self-control and perseverance. Regulating and keeping oneself away from such human needs, conscious self-restraint (of a Muslim) from sexual intercourse, food and drink from dawn to dusk for a certain period with the sole intention of worship. It is conditional for woman to be free from “Haiz-o-Nifaas” (menstruation and discharge of blood of the childbirth) for the observance of fast.

Fasting also enables a person to develop his capacity of self-control and self-denial whereby he learns to master himself to a considerable extent. It is a form of self-denial whereby a person controls and masters many of his wishes and desires, not only of eating and drinking but many others. 

Sahih Hadith Narrated By Abu Huraira: The Prophet (PBUH) said, Whoever fasts in the month of Ramadan out of sincere faith, and hoping for a reward from Allah, then all his previous sins will be forgiven.” Volume 003, Book 031, Hadith Number 125. Sahih Bukhari

Through fasting we willingly and obediently sacrifice ourselves, since during the daytime we forego eating, drinking, smoking, and sexual contact between the spouses.Fasting teaches us self-discipline, and in the process, we become the masters of ourselves for the love of Allah and out of obedience to Him.

Therefore, we learn patience, we feel calm, good, and pure inside. Not only that but during Ramadan we become especially careful about our manners and conduct. We watch ourselves and try to reach the ideal of being good.  Ramadan is a great teacher, it teaches us to be good and helpful, to act and behave very well, to be nice to people and not to talk behind their backs, to be accepting and not accusing, to be people of patience, and to be very considerate.

One of the imperative factors of fasting is to restrain yourself not only from the eating and drinking but from all the evil deed from minor to major.

There is a Sahih Hadith Narrated By Abu Huraira: The Prophet said, “Whoever does not give up forged speech and evil actions, Allah is not in need of his leaving his food and drink (i.e. Allah will not accept his fasting.)” Volume 003, Book 031, Hadith Number 127. Sahih Bukhari