One of the most important questions to understand the SDG’s is the difference between Convergence and Divergence. The poor countries are in the path or close to narrow the gap with the high-income countries in terms of education, health, wellbeing, and economic development. On this regard, it is very important to understand two concepts; first convergence is defined as to convey a narrow between a poor country and a richer comparison country. The opposite of convergence is divergence that means a poor country is becoming even poorer when compared with the rich country.
Modern economy growth took off in the Industrial Revolution, from around 1750 to 1850. Until the industrial revolution, most of the world was poor and rural, so the gap of poor and rich didn’t exist. Countries like Great Bretain, United States, Canada and a few other places, were becoming richer because of the industrialization, while the rest of the world remained in peasant farming. Then these imperial forces took political and military control of other areas of the world such as Africa, Asia, Middle East and Latin America, whom were not interested in the overall economic and social development of their colonial possessions, but only focused on extracting as many resources as possible to benefit their industries. This economic process was one of Divergence.
After world war II, countries gained political independence thorough the world, and this newly won independence gave them the ability to foster economic development on their own, especially infrastructure the basis for industrial development. The technological change since 1950 gave the poor countries the possibility to develop better transport, better communication, access to education and health. The last 60 years had a tendency toward convergence.
To comprehend how we will accomplish the SDG’s and eliminate poverty in the world, it is crucial to be aware that we are in a process of convergence where it exists the moral obligation of developed countries with the undeveloped world in order to create a more fair world, after beneficiating from their natural resources many decades or centuries. The most success case is China, responsible of pulling 680 million people out of poverty, the biggest achievement the last 30 years because of the high economic growth the last 30 years around 10% GDP Growth that exemplifies the convergence theory that needs to be applied to accomplish the Sustainable Development Goals.