Organization culture and job satisfaction
According to Martin (2002), culture is a set of values and beliefs which are followed by a specific group of people. He asserts that many organizations have put their efforts to understand the significance of a global culture. The balance amid local and organization’s culture has been proved critical for organization success (Marquardt & Berger, 2003). Organization culture is a composition of different meaning and behavior at a particular organization (Ostroff, Kinicki & Tamkins, 2003). According to Trice & Beyer, (1993) organization culture involves unique languages and practices. Culture means a set of values and beliefs learned by a group of individual in a particular context to ensure their survival in the external environment as well as to solve the problems arises from the internal integration (Schein, 1990).
Cameron and Quinn, (2006) stated that culture has a significant impact on organizational changes as division of labor and function due to organizations growth leads to subcultures for each unit of the organization. A study of McLean (2005) suggested that organization culture has a strong association with employee’s behavior in organization climate. Organization culture can affect the degree of employees learning activities, level of satisfaction and motivation. An environment which provides a supportive culture can enable employees to utilize their new knowledge which may enhance the performance of organization. Most of the Organizations cultures are a composition of visible characteristic such as values, beliefs, faith, myths, languages, norms, stories and regulation (Lund, 2003). Supportive organization culture can enhance worker loyalty, improves worker ability to work hard and demonstrate culture characteristics which represents organization. According to Belias and Koustelios, (2014) employees prefer culture which is in balance with their demographic characteristics. Human Resource Development (HRD) practitioners agrees that some cultural characteristic may leads the organization toward innovation and creativity through organization development or training (McLean, 2005). Understanding the organization culture may help the employees to meet the organization expectation and can show more positive behavior in a new culture environment. An organization based on a strong culture gives priority to those individuals who understand organization values as new employees are required to accept those current organizational values (Werner & DeSimone, 2012).
Chen and Manning, (2015) asserts that organization culture plays a significant role in the overall success of organization. Organization culture itself is a means through which cultural changes occur or can perpetuate the existing culture. According to Werner and DeSimone, (2012) organization during recruitment process gives preference to those candidates whose values seems to be more similar with the organization values as a balance amid employees and organization values leads to greater loyalty and job satisfaction. Jun and Rowley (2014) stated that managers must need to know that how organizational culture effects employees job satisfaction because it’s very difficult to bring cultural changes as it is strongly attached with attitudes, behaviors, values, beliefs and expectations. Despite the urgent and significant need of research in this area, there are still only few studies have focused on examining these relationships (Lund, 2003). However, some researchers have focused on analyzing the relationship amid job training and job satisfaction (Schmidt, 2007). When analyzing the impacts of organizational culture on the overall success of organization it necessary to link it with the effects of national cultures. Organization culture influences the internal atmosphere of organizations but also responding to changes in the prevailing national culture (Tekingündüz, & Hikmet, 2013). National cultures have a strong influence on organization performance; therefore, both organizational and national cultures have a combine impact on HRD practices (Wang, Ruona & Rojewski, 2005). There is a needs of greater study to analyze the relationship amid organizational and national culture (Dastmalchian, Lee & Ng, 2000).
Culture refers to a composition of shared values, leadership style, shared beliefs which act as a glue or bond for members, and also strategies emphasizing on effectiveness (Lund, 2003, p. 221). There are four major types of culture adopted across the world, namely Clan, Hierarchy, Adhocracy and market culture are discussed as follows.
Clan culture is more similar to the family’s atmosphere where organizations encourage employee’s loyalty, cohesion, group commitment, and human work environment. According to Hill, (2013) Clan, culture is based on collaboration where organization gives more importance to employee’s values and their satisfaction which as a result enhance organizations productivity (e.g. In-N-Out Burger). Clan culture provides a friendlier atmosphere where employees share work, tasks, and challenges jointly like a family. Hence, this culture promotes employee’s collaboration and commitment but also stressing cohesion, consensus, morale, emphasizes individual development and teamwork (Cameron & Quinn, 2006).
Hierarchical culture refers to controlling cultures which are established with accordance to a standardized structure to make their operations efficient and effective. This type of culture is more focused on rules, regulations and policies, and is more formalized as compared to other form of culture. Examples of Hierarchical culture are McDonald’s (a fast food restaurant) and a carmaker companies like Ford (Hill, 2013).
This type of culture differentiates itself from other three types of culture by focusing more on bringing creativity and innovation in the organization as Google develops technological innovations and high-end tools to create leaders (Hill, 2013). Adhocracy culture has been considering as a most creative and dynamic culture as it gives importance to new challenges, gaining new knowledge, changes and producing unique outcomes and services (Cameron & Quinn, 2006). Employees having strong features related to flexibility and initiatives are more successful in this type of culture (Sugita & Takahashi, 2015). Chen and Manning (2015) Stated that Market and Adhocracy cultures are much similar as both are more focused on external environment. In contrast Hierarchy and Clan are mush similar to each other as both are concentrated on internal environment.
Market culture is more goal and result oriented as it encourages higher productivity, partnerships, and competencies and positioning (Cameron & Quinn, 2006). Here organization competes for higher market share and to achieve this organization emphasizes strategies which enables them to achieve their goal and to compete in the market (Hill, 2013).
Organization culture and job satisfaction
According to Bhatti & Qureshi, (2007) and Purcell & Kinnie, (2007) organizational cultures have a significant impact on employee’s perceptions and job satisfaction. Thus, effective organization needs to create a culture which actively encourages employee’s satisfaction. Lund (1990) asserts that Advocacy and Clan Culture have positive impact on employee’s job satisfaction while Hierarchical and Market Culture have negative impact on job satisfaction. In control culture which is strongly based on rules, regulation, order, achievements and policies, the long term organization loyalty, security and satisfaction of employees may be seems doubtful (Shellenbarger, 2000). Shurbagi and Zahari (2012) conducted a numerical study to analyze the correlation of job satisfaction with the four types of culture. Their study shows that Clan, Adhocracy and Market culture have positive association with job satisfaction, although Hierarchical Culture have no significant association with job satisfaction. According to Ashraf and Rezaie, (2015) adhocracy culture had a greater influence on job satisfaction followed by the Market culture. However, Hierarchical and Clan culture had least impact on job satisfaction. Belias and Koustelios (2014) stated that Hierarchical culture has greater influence on employee’s job satisfaction. Moreover, Vairaktarakis, Koustelios, and Sdrolias (2015) explain that Market and Adhocracy culture have the greater tendency to increase employee’s dissatisfaction related to salary. Schulz (2013) argues that Clan culture is significantly associated with job satisfaction and is considers as a major contributor to employee’s job satisfaction while other three types have no association with job satisfaction. Additionally, Hur (2015) indicated that Hierarchy, Clan and Market culture are significantly associated with job satisfaction. The study of Aydin and Ceylan (2011) shows that customer orientation and employees job satisfaction are both significantly associated with organization culture.
According to Choi et al. (2014) organizations cultures which are focused on creativity and innovations are tend to increase job satisfaction. Organization cultures present a realistic view about individual’s attitude and jobs performance as affected by the organization (Simun, Jusoh, & Chong, 2011). Tak, Tong, and Wong (2014) used multiple regression analysis to understand the influence of organizational culture on the job satisfaction. The study suggested that more friendly and collaborative organization culture can be used as strong Human Resource (HR) strategy; the positive impact of organizational culture can result in higher job satisfaction and efficient performance. In contrast, negative impact of organization culture may lead the organization to higher employee’s turnover as they seek to move from the current workplace environment to the new one (Cotterman, 1991). It is thus important to understand the relation amid organizational culture and job satisfaction which as a result helps the organization to understand employee’s preferences and abilities to meet their needs.