This article firstly was published in Diplomatic Courier, Special 10 Year Anniversary Edition: Volume 10, Issue 3, June 2016.

Globalization and the issues of interdependence and interconnectedness make people perceive daily life in a new way. With the increasing number of international and interstate conflicts and crises the civilian population has become the most disadvantaged: women, children, and elderly people suffer, and it concerns developing countries (failed and weak states) and also the states with historic level of peace and security. Twenty years ago, Europe experienced the most terrible human tragedy after the II World War: mass killings, assassination, enormous refugee flows. The humanitarian catastrophe in the Balkan Peninsula has posed new questions about the future of peace operations, i.e. the question of peace enforcement concept.

Peace enforcement, or “humanitarian intervention” might be considered as a modified armed conflict – it does not fit into the framework of the typical armed conflict. Such changes in the nature of military actions take place not so often. The definition of humanitarian intervention is clearly described in the work Peacekeeping and peacemaking: Towards effective intervention in post-Cold War conflicts (1998). Researchers from Great Britain Tom Woodhouse, Robert Bruce, and Malcolm Dando distinguish two types of humanitarian intervention. The first kind is “coercive humanitarian intervention” that is divided into “coercive military=forcible intervention” and “coercive non-military humanitarian intervention”. For the second type of humanitarian intervention, the researchers propose “non-coercive humanitarian intervention”, which includes peacemaking itself, assistance from foreign countries, and the support of international governmental organizations and international non-governmental organizations transnational corporations, and states. Here, it is very important that “state negotiators seek the best collective outcome, and are open to changing their beliefs and preferences at the table on their way to a reasoned consensus” (Risse T., Kleine M., 2010).

Nowadays, this kind of peace operations has become a practice in the system of international relations and is used to prevent human rights violations, acts of violence against the civilian population. To respond to the changing nature of international environment, researchers have resorted to the modern multilateral approach. If the peace operation calls not only for the involvement of more components but also the cessation of activities of the warring party, the civilian component within the structure of the mission is necessary. The mission itself contains the formation of police structures, the development of the legal system with the independent and reliable provision of law enforcement including participation of public prosecutors and lawyers. In their turn, these factors entails social and economic development of the territory. Such integrated approach to implement stability in conflict regions considered as instable hotspots is called the 3D approach («Defense, Diplomacy and Development»). In fragile and weak states, 3D projects can finance police training programs, military forces training programs and even organization of peacekeeping mission at whole.

The other component of peacekeeping comprises policy to protect human rights justified as a part providing rule of law and stability that is essential. The interdependence between human rights, peace and security based on the concept «Responsibility to Protect» (R2P) relates to the main factors. This concept refers that each state is responsible for the security of its own citizens. However, the other countries may intervene if the state cannot or will not take on such responsibility. Thus, this principle requires from governments and states “to serve for its citizens”, and the principle of sovereignty cannot be lost.

To sum up, in spite of the availability to implement peace-enforcement measures today, the international society has to address also different methods which contain 3D components and R2P. Even security concept cannot be considered as a subject of a coalition confidence and defense, and the relationship between numerous aspects of the 3D approach shows a set of small actions which meets the definition of human security, in their turn. The events happened in 1991-1995 in Bosnia and Herzegovina show us today how fragile peace can be.  Therefore, today international society should undertake a lot of measures including the collaboration states, international governmental institutions, non-governmental actors, transnational companies, human beings to protect human rights, promote peace and stability.


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